Surgery has traditionally been a specialty within the medical profession that has revolved around invasive procedures to treat various maladies. Initially, trauma induced by the therapeutic procedure was necessary and reasonable to provide benefit to the patient. But now, through the innovation of digital imaging technology, combined with optical engineering and improved video displays, surgeons can operate inside of body cavities for therapeutic intervention without the larger incisions previously necessary to allow a surgeons hands access to the necessary organs. Rather than creating large incisions several inches long to gain access to underlying tissues, minimally invasive surgical techniques typically rely on small half-inch incisions encircling the surgical field in order to insert small scopes and instruments. Minimally invasive surgery has caused a change in the route of access and has significantly and irrevocably changed the surgical treatment of most disease processes.
Robotic, Robotics journal, Medical journal
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